Headache is a painful disorder of the head (sometimes associated with pain in the face and/or neck). It is the most common of painful syndromes. In Italy it affects about ten million people in an episodic way, two million in a chronic way.
Prophylaxis therapy is generally indicated not only when the attacks are considered frequent (> 3-6 / month) but also when they are present two or three times a month of long duration (48-72 hours) and / or very disabling. A good response to prophylaxis treatment is defined as a 50% reduction in the frequency of the number of attacks per month or their intensity.
Partena is a nutraceutical product based on magnesium, dry extracts of feverfew and Andrographis, coenzyme Q10 and riboflavin.
Coenzyme Q10, also called "ubiquinone" (or vitamin Q) is a ubiquitous organic molecule in biological systems. It is a fundamental substance involved in the process of cellular respiration and several recent studies have shown that it possesses the ability to reduce episodes of migraines. It has a preventive effect on acute attacks because it is directly involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism (and migraine seems to be associated with an energy deficit in the mitochondria). In addition, Coenzyme Q10 counteracts endothelial dysfunction, stimulating endothelial release of nitric oxide (NO) and has anti-inflammatory properties.
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) is an essential precursor for the synthesis of FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) necessary for the transport of electrons in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and is essential for the physiological production of ATP and consequently to maintain membrane stability and for all cellular functions. Vitamin B2 contributes to the protection of cells from oxidative stress and the normal functioning of the nervous system.
Magnesium, by regulating the membrane potential of cells and the permeability of the plasma membrane to different types of ions (potassium, calcium, sodium), contributes to the normal functioning of the nervous system and normal muscle function. Being finally enzymatic cofactor of numerous physiological reactions, it contributes to normal energy metabolism.
Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), a member of the Compositeae family, is a perennial herbaceous plant. Thanks to the main active components of the dry extract, it is able to counteract localized states of tension and promote joint function. This is possible thanks to the presence of the parthenolide that has multiple functions, including the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, the inhibition of serotonin release from platelets and anti-inflammatory effects.
Andrographis paniculata, belonging to the family of Acanthaceae, is an annual plant erect with a thin stem from whose aerial summits it is obtained a dry extract naturally rich in polyphenols and flavonoids. It is a plant used for centuries in oriental medicine whose beneficial effects would seem to be attributed to its main component, andrographolide, a diterpenic compound. Thanks to this, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and anti-tumor effects are obtained (Akbar, 2011; Varma et al., 2011). In addition, the plant components interfere overall with the activity of inflammation mediators (COX and proinflammatory cytokines).
* Note Values calculated on a single administration
Studies have shown that the combination of coenzyme Q10, extract of feverfew and magnesium, is useful for migraine prophylaxis.
The anti-migraine properties of feverfew are attributed to the main component of the extract from this plant, which is the partenolide that has different effects, including the relaxation of smooth muscle cells, the inhibition of serotonin release from platelets, as well as effects antiinflammatory.
Also coenzyme Q10, stimulating the release of NO, has anti-inflammatory effects; through a double-blind clinical trial performed in adult patients with migraine (who were given 100 mg orally three times a day for three months), a significant reduction in the frequency of migraine attacks was obtained.
Studies have also been made on magnesium and it is very likely that there will be a deficiency of this mineral in subjects prone to migraine attacks.
Therefore, the integration of these components would seem to have beneficial effects for those suffering from this disorder.
Below is the link to the experimental evidences that show how these three "ingredients" can be of benefit for those suffering from migraine.
The anti-nociceptive activity of Andrographis paniculata is due to the diterpenic compounds, the polyphenols and the flavonoids contained therein. The anti-inflammatory effects of these components are due to the ability to interfere with the production of cyclooxygenase (COX) and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In fact, at the base of this activity, there is a modulation of the NF-kB pathway and the iNOS pathway (involved in the transmission of pain, chronic pain and neuroinflammation). It would seem that these anti-inflammatory effects are due to a specific and abundant diterpene component of the plant, andrographolide. Recent data suggest that andrographolide and its analogs have the requirements to be considered next-generation anti-inflammatory agents.